Relatively recently, a new branch of medicine has appeared - cosmetic surgery, the purpose of which is breast implantation. According to statistics, most members of the fairer sex, dissatisfied with the size of their breasts, resort to the services of plastic surgeons. Breast augmentation surgeries are performed using special implants.
Indications for this may be:
- The patient's desire is to increase the size of the breasts and give them a more attractive shape.
- Breast reconstruction after radical mastectomy (removal), due to various diseases.
- Asymmetry of the mammary glands.
- Congenital anomalies and anatomical defects.
- Consequences of trauma.
When a woman decides that she needs breast augmentation surgery, she faces 3 main tasks on which a positive result will largely depend: the choice of clinic, specialist surgeon and type of breast implant.
Choice of specialist
How to choose the right clinic and plastic surgeon? There are many clinics in large cities that offer plastic surgery services. There is a fear of running into unscrupulous specialists, and then for many years he pays with his health and worn out nerves. There are many precedents in legal practice when they were held accountable and forced to pay material and moral damage.
It should be borne in mind that the cost of good implants and the work of a team of doctors is quite high. You should not indulge in various promotions and discounts, if the operation is offered at a price significantly lower than the market average, then it is better not to risk your health and refuse.
There are several criteria for a competent choice of clinic:
- The institution has permits, appropriate licenses, its experts have undergone specialized training and present certified copies of university diplomas, specialization courses.
- The clinic has all the necessary equipment, including resuscitation and intensive care equipment.
- The operation is performed by a team of surgeons, resuscitators, operating nurses.
- The price of services includes postoperative care and supervision.
- The clinic has good patient reviews and is appreciated in the medical community.
- The doctor talks in detail about the nuances of the operation and the service contract, including a section on possible complications.
- The clinic carefully checks the patient's health before setting a date for surgery.
So, a clinic and a plastic surgeon have been appointed to perform the operation. It remains to choose breast implants.
What are they? Breast implants are a shell filled with a certain composition.
As a filler are used:
- saline solution;
- solution mixture.
Saline breast implants are practically not used at the current stage of development of cosmetic surgery. They can not provide a long-lasting cosmetic effect - over time, wrinkles and tubercles appear on the surface of the breast. The gel content in the implant cannot move so freely, so it is desirable.
The latest generation of implants from leading Western manufacturers is based on a special gel that does not move when the body position changes. As a result, the breasts retain their attractive shape for many years.
Gel breast implants have:
- Durable silicone fiber outer shell.
- Cohesive gel filler that has a jelly consistency.
- When it breaks, the gel does not leak into the breast tissue, but stays inside.
It is important to choose an anatomical implant that will match the patient's natural breast shape. For straight breasts, it is recommended to install a teardrop-shaped implant, with a relaxed one - round. The surgeon and the patient must make a joint decision about mammoplasty and implants. In good clinics, it is proposed to create a 3D model, which allows you to assess the results of future surgery.
In addition to the shape, the size of the implant is also selected. In modern models, one size corresponds to 150 ml of gel filler. If breast augmentation of two sizes is planned, 300 ml implants are selected.
There are special cases when a surgeon injects a filler into the shell during the operation. He makes an individual decision on the amount of gel to be injected based on:
- body proportions,
- chest width,
- current breast size
- skin density.
After placing the implant in the breast, a capsule of connective tissue is formed over time, which penetrates into its pores. The breasts become naturally soft to the touch and do not deform over time. In some patients, a very thick capsule forms that makes the mammary glands hard. Over time, this can cause them to lose their shape.
How are implants placed during surgery? The position of the implant in the breast determines the shape of the mammary glands. How quickly and well they "take root" in the body depends on its correct choice.
There are several ways to place implants:
- Above the pectoral muscle. Patients quickly and easily go through the rehabilitation period, the edema disappears in a short time. Contraction of the pectoral muscles does not cause deformation of the implant. But over time, it can grow into a thick connective capsule, making mammography difficult.
- Under the pectoral muscle. In this case, the implant will not interfere with mammography, will not heal into a dense capsule, but may be deformed due to the contraction of the mammary glands.
- Middle position between the fascia of the pectoral muscle and the mammary gland tissue. This allows you to securely fix the implant and avoid negative effects.
Breast implantation is performed in a clinic, usually under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision under the armpit under the folds of the breast or around the areola. In this case, less noticeable scars remain. The duration of the operation, depending on the complexity, is 1-2 hours.
Recovery period after mammoplasty
On the first day after the operation, the patient remains under the supervision of the doctor and medical staff at the clinic. With a normal health condition, she was discharged the next day after getting dressed. 5-7 days after the operation, control examinations and, if necessary, bandages are performed, and sutures are removed for 10-14 days. The rest of the rehabilitation period, in the absence of complications, the patient spends alone.
- wear special compression underwear prescribed by a doctor,
- limit physical load on the shoulder girdle,
- in the process of recovery to get involved in a normal way of life,
- protect the breasts from injuries from overheating and hypothermia,
- gradual return to sport.
The whole period of rehabilitation, when the edema completely disappears and the results of mammoplasty can be assessed, is 4-6 months.
Risks of breast augmentation surgery
Mammoplasty belongs to the category of complex operations, after which general surgical complications can occur:
- Bleeding. The risk of bleeding is increased by poor blood clotting, sometimes the cause may be an unsewn blood vessel or a torn suture.
- Infection. The operative field for mammoplasty is wide, an infection from the surrounding skin can enter the wound.
- Formation of dense scars. Sometimes mutilated scars form at the site of the sutures. They are removed by excision.
In addition to general surgical complications, breast augmentation surgeries are specific:
- Implant rupture. In rare cases, this occurs due to a violation of the patient’s regimen during the rehabilitation period or as a result of implant defects.
- Breast deformity with round implants. Occurs if the patient neglects to wear compression underwear, or due to incorrectly chosen tactics for implant placement.
- Loss of sensation in the nipple and areola. The reason is a violation of the integrity of nerve endings.
- Edema due to impaired lymphatic drainage.
- Formation of a dense capsular membrane, which can deform the breast with anatomical implants.
Alternative breast augmentation
Is there an alternative to breast augmentation surgery? The use of cosmetics - creams, gels, ointments does not give positive results. You can't enlarge your breasts this way. In addition, the hormones they contain can cause a state of imbalance that is very difficult to correct.
Lack of volume and asymmetry can be compensated by wearing a special bra. But still, only breast augmentation surgery can restore a woman's self-confidence and attractiveness.